This chapter deals mainly with the second century philosopher Galen. Earlier Roman statesmen such as Pliny viewed Christianity as a kind of socio-political club. Galen, however, shifted the paradigm slightly be referring to Christianity as a “philosophy” and looked somewhat favorably on Christians and Jews because he believed it allowed people to live a moral and virtuous life. By the second century, much of philosophy was about a way of life as opposed to way of thinking. Galen also had one major problem with Christians/Jews of his day.
Galen thought their beliefs were foolish and that they were not thought out. He especially criticized creation ex nihilo.